New York’s recent tightening enforcement of gun laws serves as a good example. According to Pollack, New York didn’t effectively reduce its heroin use rate or solve underlying problems such as poverty — the things that gun rights advocates often claim actually contribute to gun violence. But New York did tighten gun restrictions, which coincided with less violence.
Socioeconomic factors also play a role. Studies shown that large inequality tends to lead to more violence. In the graph it’s also visible that Argentina has less guns, but a lot of gun violence. So I would say this is a structural and cultural issue.