Circular strategies for mitigating surging critical metal demand

Concern about the availability of critical metals is growing. Such rare or scarce metals, like lithium or cobalt, are vital to the world’s major economies and crucial for a transition to a renewable energy system in the Netherlands. At current levels, the global supply of these metals is insufficient, and the Dutch demand for them is no exception. This study offers insight into the demand of critical metals domestically, offers perspectives on how to reduce this demand, and demonstrates the opportunities that these new measures would present.

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